CONSEQUENCES OF DOPING, FOR EXAMPLE, PHYSICAL AND MENTAL HEALTH, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS, AND SANCTIONS / ANTI-DOPING RULE VIOLATIONS
Consequences in health
Taking medication when you don’t need it can have adverse health effects. Even small doses and short-term use may result in irreversible harm.
The impact on health is dependent on factors such as:
- Type of drug/substance
- Amount used (dosage)
- Duration of use
- Genetic/hereditary factors
- General state of health (existing illness that may or may not be known)
- Interaction with other drugs being used
Here are some of the side effects that the use of banned substances can have.
- Testosterone and synthetic derivatives:
- Mood and behavioral disorders
- Depression and anxiety
- Liver tumors, reduced kidney function
- Human growth hormone:
- Heart failure
- Beta-2 agonists:
- Heart palpitation and sweating
- Headaches and nausea
- Tremor/shaking and muscle spasm
- Dizziness or even fainting
- Muscle cramps
- Loss of coordination and balance
- Confusion, mental changes, or moodiness
- Cardiac disorders
- Abnormal changes in behavior and emotions
- Lack of motivation and performance in school, work, and sports
- Addiction and combination of other illicit drugs
- Psychological dependence
- Mood swings
- Liver disease
- Cardiovascular disease
- High blood pressure
- Sexual side effects
- Overdose with respiratory depression and death
Consequences in professional career and personal life
A sanction for doping can go from a warning or reprimand to a lifetime ban from all sports. Sanctions depend on what Anti-Doping Rule Violation (ADRV) was committed. ADRVs impact the athlete AND others close to them such as teammates, friends, partners, and family. It is these consequences that can be the most difficult for athletes to deal with.
An ADRV for an athlete who is part of a team sport can lead to consequences for the entire team. For example, the whole team may experience a loss of points, disqualification from a competition or event, or other sanctions.
Other consequences of doping
- Psychological consequences such as depression, withdrawal, guilt/shame, and loss of self-identity
- Financial penalties and loss of grants, funding, contracts, or sponsorship
- Giving back medals
- Social consequences such as isolation from sport/team, public embarrassment, and social exclusion
Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs)
In the World Anti-Doping Code (Code), doping is defined as the occurrence of one or more of the Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs). There are 11 ADRVs and all 11 ADRVs apply to athletes and 7 of them apply to athlete support personnel. Sanctions can result in up to a lifetime ban, depending on the severity of the case.
- Presence – It is a potential ADRV if there is the presence of a prohibited substance, its metabolites, or markers in an athlete’s sample.
- Use – It is a potential ADRV if there is use or attempted use by an athlete of a prohibited substance or method. This includes Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) cases.
- Evasion – It is a potential ADRV if there is evading, refusing, or failing to submit to sample collection by an athlete.
- Whereabouts failures – It is a potential ADRV if there are 3 Whereabouts or filing failures by an athlete in a 12-month period.
- Tampering – It is a potential ADRV if there is tampering or attempted tampering with any part of doping control by an athlete or other person. This can include fabricating evidence or adding a liquid other than urine to the sample bottle.
- Possession – It is a potential ADRV if there is possession of a prohibited substance or method by an athlete or athlete support personnel.
- Trafficking – It is a potential ADRV if there is trafficking or attempted trafficking of any prohibited substance or method by an athlete or other person.
- Administration to an athlete – It is a potential ADRV if there is administration or attempted administration by an athlete or other person to any athlete of any prohibited substance or method.
- Complicity – It is a potential ADRV if there is assisting, encouraging, aiding, abetting, conspiring, covering up, or any other type of intentional complicity or attempted complicity by an athlete or other person. This includes if an athlete helps a friend not to submit to sample.
- Prohibited association – It is a potential ADRV if there is prohibited association by an athlete or other person with suspended athlete support personnel.
- Discourage or retaliate – It is a potential ADRV if there are acts by an athlete or other person to discourage or retaliate against reporting to authorities.